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Step five – Carcassonne, la Citè

We choose our hotel in Carcassonne on the web, and we got luck, considering the view we had from our room……

Occupied since the Neolithic period, Carcassonne is located in the Aude plain between two great axes of circulation linking the Atlantic to the Mediterranean sea and the Massif Central to the Pyrénées. Its strategic importance was quickly recognized by the Romans who occupied its hilltop until the demise of the Western Roman Empire and was later taken over in the fifth century by the Visigoths who founded the city. Also thriving as a trading post due to its location, it saw many rulers who successively built up its fortifications, until its military significance was greatly reduced by the Treaty of the Pyrenees in 1659. The city is famous for the Cité de Carcassonne, a medieval fortress restored by the theorist and architect Eugène Viollet-le-Duc in 1853 and added to the UNESCO list of World Heritage Sites in 1997. Consequently, Carcassonne greatly profits from tourism but also counts manufacture and wine-making as some of its other key economic sectors.

The first signs of settlement in this region have been dated to about 3500 BC, but the hill site of Carsac – a Celtic place-name that has been retained at other sites in the south – became an important trading place in the 6th century BC. The Volcae Tectosages fortified the oppidum. The folk etymology – involving a châtelaine named Carcas, a ruse ending a siege and the joyous ringing of bells (“Carcas sona”) – though memorialized in a neo-Gothic sculpture of Mme. Carcas on a column near the Narbonne Gate, is of modern invention. The name can be derived as an augmentative of the name Carcas.

Carcassonne became strategically identified when Romans fortified the hilltop around 100 BC and eventually made the colonia of Julia Carsaco, later Carcasum (by the process of swapping consonants known as metathesis). The main part of the lower courses of the northern ramparts dates from Gallo-Roman times. In 462 the Romans officially ceded Septimania to the Visigothic king Theodoric II who had held Carcassonne since 453; he built more fortifications at Carcassonne, which was a frontier post on the northern marches: traces of them still stand. Theodoric is thought to have begun the predecessor of the basilica that is now dedicated to Saint Nazaire. In 508 the Visigoths successfully foiled attacks by the Frankish king Clovis. Saracens from Barcelona took Carcassonne in 725, but King Pepin the Short (Pépin le Bref) drove them away in 759-60; though he took most of the south of France, he was unable to penetrate the impregnable fortress of Carcassonne.

A medieval fiefdom, the county of Carcassonne, controlled the city and its environs. It was often united with the County of Razès. The origins of Carcassonne as a county probably lie in local representatives of the Visigoths, but the first count known by name is Bello of the time of Charlemagne. Bello founded a dynasty, the Bellonids, which would rule many honores in Septimania and Catalonia for three centuries. In 1067, Carcassonne became the property of Raimond-Bernard Trencavel, viscount of Albi and Nîmes, through his marriage with Ermengard, sister of the last count of Carcassonne. In the following centuries, the Trencavel family allied in succession either with the counts of Barcelona or of Toulouse. They built the Château Comtal and the Basilica of St. Nazaire and St. Celse (more about both of them later). In 1096, Pope Urban II blessed the foundation stones of the new cathedral.

Carcassonne became famous in its role in the Albigensian Crusades, when the city was a stronghold of Occitan Cathars. In August 1209 the crusading army of the Papal Legate,Abbot Arnaud Amalric, forced its citizens to surrender. Raymond-Roger de Trencavel was imprisoned whilst negotiating his city’s surrender, and died in mysterious circumstances three months later in his own dungeon. Simon De Montfort was appointed the new viscount. He added to the fortifications.

In 1240, Trencavel’s son tried to reconquer his old domain but in vain. The city submitted to the rule of the kingdom of France in 1247. Carcassonne became a border fortress between France and the Crown of Aragon under the Treaty of Corbeil (1258). King Louis IX founded the new part of the town across the river. He and his successor Philip III built the outer ramparts. Contemporary opinion still considered the fortress impregnable. During the Hundred Years’ War, Edward the Black Prince failed to take the city in 1355, although his troops destroyed the Lower Town. In 1659, the Treaty of the Pyrenees transferred the border province of Roussillon to France, and Carcassonne’s military significance was reduced. Fortifications were abandoned, and the city became mainly an economic centre that concentrated on the woollen textile industry, for which a 1723 source quoted by Fernand Braudel found it “the manufacturing centre of Languedoc”. It remained so until the Ottoman market collapsed at the end of the eighteenth century, thereafter reverting to a country town.

Carcassonne was the first fortress to use hoardings in times of siege. Temporary wooden ramparts would be fitted to the upper walls of the fortress through square holes beneath the rampart itself. It provided protection to defenders on the wall and allowed defenders to go out past the wall to drop projectiles on attackers at the wall beneath. The fortified city itself consists essentially of a concentric design of two outer walls with 53 towers and barbicans to prevent attack by siege engines. The castle itself possesses its own drawbridge and ditch leading to a central keep. The walls consist of towers built over quite a long period. One section is Roman and is notably different from the medieval walls with the tell-tale red brick layers and the shallow pitch terracotta tile roofs. One of these towers housed the Catholic Inquisition in the 13th century and is still known as “The Inquisition Tower”.

Carcassonne was struck off the roster of official fortifications under Napoleon and the Restoration, and the fortified cité of Carcassonne fell into such disrepair that the French government decided that it should be demolished. A decree to that effect that was made official in 1849 caused an uproar. The antiquary and mayor of Carcassonne, Jean-Pierre Cros-Mayrevieille, and the writer Prosper Mérimée, the first inspector of ancient monuments, led a campaign to preserve the fortress as a historical monument. Later in the year the architect Eugène Viollet-le-Duc, already at work restoring the Basilica of Saint-Nazaire, was commissioned to renovate the place. In 1853, works began with the west and southwest walling, followed by the towers of the porte Narbonnaise and the principal entrance to the cité. The fortifications were consolidated here and there, but the chief attention was paid to restoring the roofing of the towers and the ramparts, where Viollet-le-Duc ordered the destruction of structures that had encroached against the walls, some of them of considerable age. Viollet-le-Duc left copious notes and drawings on his death in 1879, when his pupil Paul Boeswillwald, and later the architect Nodet continued the rehabilitation of Carcassonne.



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Posted by on August 25, 2016 in Uncategorized


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Step four – Wandering along a river

The river Gardon is what give the region its name, Region du Gard, and even if so hot (at the moment a very worrying lack of rain) it’s very beautiful…We spent the morning strolling around the little village of Remoulins, an old place along its banks…

Remoulins is located on the Gardon river, just downstream from the Pont du Gard (another beautiful memory from some years ago). It has a popular river-side beach during the summer, and a very intersting Medieval old village with remnants of fortified walls, towers and a 12th century church,.

It is also been called “capital of cherries ” until 2002, when some floods have ravaged the land dedicated to this crop.

The Salpêtrière grotto is a cave-like shelter near the southeast end of the Pont du Gard, but in the commune of Remoulins. This site was excavated by archeologists from 1872, and revealed a vast amount of Paleolithic artifacts and information. The Sartanette grotto is located more towards Remoulins, 600 m southeast of the end of the Pont du Gard, in the middle of the wooded hills, and accessible only by foot. Excavations began in this deep cave in 1967. Artifacts unearthed here have been dated to about 2300 BC…….it means a lot of lives have been lived along this river and in this place, sometimes it’s almost overwhelming to think about it…

A tribe of Celtic people called the Volques Arécomiques (who founded the town of Nîmes) built an oppidum, in the 4th century BC, on the hill of Marduel, 1 km southwest of the river. The site is now in the commune of St Bonnet-du-Gard.

During the 1st century BC, the Romans built the Uzès-Nîmes aqueduct and the famous Pont du Gard. From the southeast end of the Pont du Gard, the aqueduct zig-zagged through the Remoulins Forest to Lafoux, directly across the river from the town of Remoulins. From Lafoux, the aqueduct turned southwest towards Lédenon (home of a circuit track that we visited the first time we were here. Now it’s open only for races and it can be rented by appointment to private clubs).

The town began in 736 by Charles Martel, who had camped here following his victory over the Saracens. During the 9th and 10th centuries the Saint Martin chapel and the Ferregut mill were built. Remoulins was fortified in the 11th century, with walls and towers. The Notre-Dame de Bethlehem church was built in the 12th century.

We had a little walk along the river left bank (the most shaded) and it was really nice, the breeze brought lots of different flowers and plants smells….it was so refreshing…

For lunch we found a creperie that made all its dishes gluten-free….obviously we obliged! It was so good, we had a “galette bretonne” with potatoes, creme-fraiche and smoked salmon….and a sweet one with strawberry cream and jam as dessert…

In the afternoon the sun was playing hide-and-seek, but it was even hotter if possible, so we thought that maybe, near the water it would have been a little better….it wasn’t but the landscape was amazing…

After a drink break (I really think it was the hottest day of our vacation…) we drove back to our B&B, knowing we had added another pearl to our necklace of travels’ memories…


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Posted by on August 23, 2016 in Uncategorized


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Step two – A church, a garden and a castle

Having more time meant we had the chance to spend some visiting specific places, not just strolling around. We remember from our first time a few interesting things and now here we were……First we stopped to visit the Cathedral, four years ago the Mass was held and we couldn’t have a deep look inside….

Uzès Cathedral (Cathédrale Saint-Théodorit d’Uzès) is a former Roman Catholic cathedral, now a parish church, dedicated to Saint Theodoritus. It was formerly the seat of the Bishops of Uzès, until the diocese was abolished under the Concordat of 1801 and its territory passed to the Diocese of Avignon. In 1877 the territory of the former diocese of Uzès was removed from that of Avignon and added to the Diocese of Nîmes, now the Diocese of Nîmes, Uzès and Alès.

The present building, which was gutted during the French Revolution, and after repair and with the addition of a 19th-century Neo-classical façade is now used as a parish church, dates from the 17th century, and was a rebuild of the previous cathedral, which was destroyed during the French Wars of Religion. That cathedral in its turn had been built to replace a still earlier one which had been destroyed in the 12th century during the Albigensian Crusade. The campanile, the well-known Tour Fenestrelle, is the only part to survive from the medieval structure, although it was previously taller by two storeys.

The interiors were nothing I could have expected, so different from the churches we have in Italy. The balustrade makes this church more alike to a royal palace….

In the reliquary, St. Firmin, Bishop of Uzès from 538 to 553…

After the church, we walked to the castle complex, to have a look at the Medieval Garden….

A part of the castle that includes the Rainon Tower, called the Clock Tower, was sold to the Bishops in the thirteenth century; the other tower was exchanged with King Charles VIII of France in the fifteenth century. Both had their courts and prisons. The rooms served as prisons until 1926, when Uzes lost its status as sub-prefecture. Later they were transformed into reserve space, municipal workshops as well as residences. Abandoned for decades, the restored rooms come alive again through the creation of the Garden in medieval style in 1995.

This garden is a living herbarium. 450 varieties of plants live together and illustrate the many uses that were made of plants in the Middle Ages. The plants’ virtues are ambivalent, labels allow them to be discovered and to differentiate them. Nature does not always respect the established order; the garden plants coexist with some “weeds” and host insects.

In the garden sometimes there are also exhibitions of different kinds, at the time of our visit there was a young local painter vernissage….

Off to the castle nearby….

The Duchy of Uzès is built on an old Roman “Castrum” (camp) which became the residence of the Governor in the first millennium. These wooden constructions have not survived. We do know that Dhuoda, Duchess of Septimanie was exiled here by her husband Bernard in the middle of the ninth century, and that she was the first woman in the Occident to write a book. It was a manual for the education of her son, and it still exists. The architecture of the Duke’s chateau, named the Duchy is a potted history of France. The Middle-Ages, the Renaissance, the 17th century, and modern times are all there. Despite this, the ensemble is pleasing to the eye.

During the difficult times of the Revolution the building was considered as belonging to the nation, and sold. It was much misused, and ended as a school. In 1824 the Duke bought back the Duchy of Uzès from the townspeople (the writer André Gide was one of them) who in buying it had actually protected it. In 1834 a new school was build in Uzes and the Duke set about restoring the Duchy of Uzès. The first part of the 20th century saw sad days for the Duchy of Uzès. In financial difficulty, the Duke sold the furnishings and rented the Duchy of Uzès to the Board of Education who once again installed a school. They did not fulfil their obligation to care for the building and concreted both inside and out. From 1951 the widowed Marchioness of Crussol set about restoring the Duchy of Uzès that she had re-acquired with the help of the Fine Arts Ministry. Aided by her friend André Malraux, Minister of Culture under General de Gaulle, whom she had met in her Political Society Gatherings, she had the town of Uzes classed in 1964 as a heritage site, which greatly helped it after two centuries of being forgotten. Her grandson and his wife, the present Duke and Duchess of Uzes, are continuing the work started by the Marchioness. Since then major work has been done to the building, and furnishings and objects are regularly added to enrich the collections for the pleasure of the visitor. The Duchy of Uzès is a rare example in the 21st century of a family castle being completely restored.

The visit is limited, you can see a lot but not everything because it’s still a private residence….lucky them…There have been some interesting characters to hold the title through the years, including the Duchess Anne, who was initially the heir to the Veuve Cliquot fortune (some fine bottles are in the cave), an adamant huntress who rode until the age of 86, the year before she died. She was also the first woman in France to get a driver’s license and the first to get a speeding ticket too….

The Duchy of Uzès, often called the First Duchy of France, is France’s oldest ducal peerage. The Viscounty of Uzes was elevated to Duchy in 1565, and to the Peerage in 1572 by Charles 1X. Ever since then, the Duke of Uzes, 1st Peer of France, Count of Crussol, Prince of Soyons, takes precedence over all other noble houses of France, both in Parliament and at Coronations. At Court, after the extinction of the Duchy of Montmorency under Louis XIII in 1632, only the Duchy of Trémoille, created in 1563 had precedence, until it became extinct at the beginning of the 20th century. Today, Jacques de Crussol d’Uzes is the 17th Duke.

The Crussol of Uzes coat of arms is emblazoned as seen here in the carpet….. The shield was established by Antoine de Crussol, 1st Duke of Uzes and it has not changed since. The family motto “Ferro non auro” means “iron not gold” as the family comes from a line of warriors rather than from finance.

The entry fee of 18€ (about $20) includes a visit to the private chapel and the cave, a little expensive but….what the hell….

The best part of the visit was from the top of the castle “donjon” (the keep)….exhausting but worth it…

This was the end of our stay in Uzès….for now at least, because the region is worth another visit for sure….

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Posted by on August 19, 2016 in Uncategorized


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Step one – Uzès

We were there already, four years ago, but just for a few hours, a walk through its streets and squares…..This time we found on the web a lovely B&B  where to stay for three nights (and the expectations were more than satisfied!)….there we met an english family from Sheffield, and by the end of our stay we were already friends, exchanged our home addresses, phone numbers and e-mails, to be sure to stay in touch…and the place was so charming and cozy and the owners so friendly, we’re thinking of coming back this fall….

Staying longer we had the chance to see a little more of this charming village (photos posted at random) its very quiet streets, especially at the end of the day, or its crowded places………both aspects are nice to see.

(hubby being the lonely walker at that moment...)

Originally Ucetia, Uzès was a small Gallo-Roman oppidum, or administrative settlement. The town lies at the source of the Alzon river, at Fontaine d’Eure, from where a Roman aqueduct was built in the first century BC, to supply water to the local city of Nîmes, 50 kilometres (31 miles) away. The most famous stretch of the aqueduct is the Pont du Gard, which carried fresh water over splendid arches across the river Gardon (another beautiful memory of the region, back in the summer of 2006).

The civilized and tolerant urban life of 5th-century Uzès contrasted with the Frankish north. Jews were apparently settled there as early as the 5th century. Saint Ferréol, Bishop of Uzès, allegedly admitted them to his table; on this account complaint was made of him to King Childebert I, whereupon the bishop was obliged to change his attitude toward the Jews, compelling all those who would not become Christians to leave Uzès. After his death (581) many who had received baptism returned to Judaism. Jews were expelled from the region in 614.

In early 8th century, Uzès was a fortified civitas and bishopric under the archbishop of Narbonne. During the Umayyad conquest of Gothic Septimania, Uzès became the northernmost stronghold of the Andalusians circa 725. Charles Martel went on to lay siege to the stronghold in 736, but it remained in Gothic-Andalusian hands up to 752, when counts loyal to Ansemund of Nîmes handed over a large number of strongholds to the Frankish Pepin the Short. In 753 the stronghold rebelled against the Franks after Ansemund’s assassination, but the uprising was suppressed and a Frankish trustee of Pepin imposed. In the 13th century, Uzès hosted a small community of Jewish scholars, as well as a community of Cathars. Like many cloth-manufacturing centers (Uzès was known for its serges), the city and the surrounding countryside were strongly Protestant during the Wars of Religion in the 16th century, which wreaked havoc in Languedoc. Numerous of the city’s churches were trashed and burned by furious Protestants: only two remain today.

While there, we enjoyed some very good meals in local restaurants….the first we tried was good for the food, but the service was really deplorable, a very long wait and not so cheap….the location, on a terrace, and the view made up for that…

Located on the Place aux Herbes there are at least 15 restaurants….we chooce A Cotè and it was a good choice….

The best was the one we found following a horse carriage, in a little place just behind the main square….

Obviously, being in France, we couldn’t avoid the nth market (not that we wanted to, but we didn’t look for it neither)……the explosion of colors and smells was amazing as always…

We decided to exlpore more of the place….but that’s for another chapter…





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Posted by on August 18, 2016 in Uncategorized


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A heavy, lond and difficult renovation….

At the end of june of last year, my mother-in-law was admitted in a nursing home. It was a painful decision (I promised myself never again – after the difficult experience with my father – ) but it was a necessary one considering what she needed most of all, was a daily medical assistance, not possible at home anymore. We are glad we took that decision, because now, at 88, she’s well taken care of, and her conditions are really good considering her age. She’s a little confused and at an early stage of Alzheimer, but she still knows who we are, and we are grateful for this.

A few weeks after she left home, we started to get rid of her things, now useless. We donated clothes, bed covers, curtains and some other things to charity organisations. Some furnitures, pictures and other stuff were sold. Some things were kept. We knew the house needed heavy cleaning and some fixing, but after it was decided that it would have become our daughter new home, things took a completely different turn. A deeply restoration was in order….

Between sellings, discarding, and giving away, the house looked like this….

Then it was time for deciding what the new house would be like, to chooce the look, the colors, the furnitures…….and it was also the time for the first heartache, thinking about the money this would have costed!!!!

At the end of february this year, the bricklayers, the plumber, the electrician took the matter in their own hands….. there were a wall to knock down and rebuilt, floors to be removed and  replaced, pipes and cables to be fixed, and to manage them all we needed a very brave and able man, a surveyor, who luckily for us matched our expectations!

Finally, at the end of march, the floors were ready to be placed, and also the bathroom and the kitchen tiles were up….

After all that, the painters arrived to fix the walls and the ceilings….

…… not without some problems….

Finally we were ready for the furnitures to be moved in….the first was the kitchen

It needs some details yet to be fixed, but we have already the chandelier ready to be put in place…

It’s been hard to choose what was needed in the bathroom, but now it’s almost finished (less the curtains)…

The bedroom too is almost ready….

The curtains are yet to be fitted to the window but they are alredy here…

Ikea was of great help as you can see….(not its final destination I guess, this would move…)

The second bedroom (and the kitchen table) is still a workshop for the furnitures my daughter wants to fix herself….an old mirror newly painted…

a recycled closet painted in the same color (as many other things…my daughter ‘leitmotiv’ at the moment)

and my mother in law old chest of drawers now matching each other…

This is a little table she made out of pallets…..

The second bedroom will be finished when the rest of the house will be ready for living in it, and it will be a study/office….for now it owns only a lamp…

The living room is lacking curtains and lamps but the furnitures are in place…

The place of honor is taken by my father in law rocker….

A lot has to be done to have it finished completely (curtains, lamps, pictures and photos on the walls, a couple of shelves….) but we’re on the downhill run now…..

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Posted by on August 5, 2016 in Uncategorized


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March – part one

Starting with this lunch date, march has been very good to me. The beginning of the month was marked by the appointment hubby and I had with this guy at his studio….

….and we went home with these….My mother was not thrilled at all, but I think I’m old enough to take some decisions on my own….lol…

Back home we were greeted by some very special muffins our daughter baked to celebrate the occasion, peas and ham….so very good!

We had a great evening/night out with some friends celebrating St. Patrick………no, we’re not irish, but we still have so amazing memories of out time spent in the Emerald Island….and who can say no to a Guiness? And there were also other kinds of food, for the ones (hubby) not so crazy about the irish stew….

They heavy head I had the next morning, was the proof we had such a great time!

In my hometown some complains that there’s not enough things to do….sometimes I agree with them, but if you keep your eyes (and ears) open, you can run into something interesting, now and then…This was the case when the FAI organized its open days once again this year.  Places usually closed, open to public just for a couple of day, with free guided tours….me and my daughter choose to visit Palazzo Sanvitale on a early sunday afternoon, after a very good brunch at home, american/english style…

After that we had enough energy for the visit….

The original palace was built in the first half of the sixteenth century by the Lalatta family, and it occupied the eastern half of today’s building. Passed to the families Prati and Cesi, the palace became property of the Sanvitale family in 1639 , when Count Alexander II arranged a marriage between his son Luigi and Lucrezia Cesi, daughter of Fortunato Cesi. The dowry agreements set that the building would became the property of the Sanvitale in exchange for the complete maintenance of Lelia Cesi, mother of the bride.

The Sanvitale over the years, made various amalgamations of contiguous buildings, including the Theater of Racchetta , which was sold in 1686 by Duke Ranuccio II Farnese to Sanvitale in exchange for some buildings, after the construction of the Ducal Theatre of the Reserve , closer to Farnese court.  In the second half of the eighteenth century the building was renovated by architect Angelo Rasori , assisted by Domenico Cossetti. At the same time was raised also the new facade on the entire north side of the square Sanvitale, on which was opened the new entrance, and was built an entire wing of the building, including the vestibule and the staircase of honor. The inauguration took place on 8 July 1787 , on the occasion of the wedding of Stefano Sanvitale , the eldest son of Count Alexander III , and Luigia Gonzaga.

In the following years the building was enriched with frescoes and stucco, the work of artists of considerable importance, as evidence of the Sanvitale family wealth. 

In the early nineteenth century the imposing building was chosen as representative residence for illustrious guests passing through Parma. On the night of 9 November 1804 the Pope Pius VII slept there, en route to Paris where he attended the coronation of Napoleon Bonaparte . The emperor himself, coming from Bologna , stopped there the following year on the night between 26 and 27 June. In exchange for the hospitality received, Napoleon rewarded immediately Count Stefano Sanvitale with a gold box, the following year appointed him maire (mayor) of Parma and in 1814 gave him the title of baron of the Empire The great Theater of Racchetta was demolished around 1830.

In 1932 the last descendant of the Sanvitale, Count John , gave the palace to the Daughters of the Cross, who moved there their own schools, and remained until 1978 , when the building was purchased by Banca del Monte di Parma (one od the oldest bank in town). Between 1979 and 1988 the bank carried out major work of recovery and restoration of the building to turn it into its headquarters. 


In 1999 it was inaugurated in the palace, also home of the Fondazione Monte Parma, the Museum Amedeo Bocchi, which was added in 2014 the museum Renato Vernizzi. 

We enjoyed the visit so much, plus our guide was so kind and always ready to answer our (many) questions….really a nice afternoon.


Posted by on April 4, 2016 in Uncategorized


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It’s been another good month…

It started with a very happy hour with lots of collegues in a nice place, the lounge bar-restaurant of a local “off” theatre near the office.

The occasion was a warm and teary good-bye to these two guys (at the center) who after so many years, resigned to start a new working adventure….it was an emotional evening for all….

We usually don’t go out on friday nights, but this was a special occasion….with a couple of friends we drove to Modena to have a buffet dinner and some drinks and listen to a couple of bands (jazz and rock) in a very nice (and huge) place…..and I tried a rosemary mojito, not bad but I think I will stay with the original one in the future.

Then it was a collegues affair again. This time it was M. 50th birthday we celebrated, one of the most sweetest and nicest guy I ever met….

Can you spot me in the mirror?….

On a saturday me and my daughter were in Colorno, at the Royal Palace, for a photos exhibition. It was interesting, at least for the photos’ lovers, to see how important photographers see life through their lenses….

And yes……we bought a couple of photos books too, obviously….

A cold but sunny sunday with the always present friends, we drove up to the hills for a little walk in the woods, and to have lunch in a cozy place they already knew….

One day at lunch with a couple of collegues we were back at the birthday celebration place….the owner, a very talented sicilian girl (she wakes up every day at 3.00am to cook, bake, decor all the things she serves to her customers) invited me in her kitchen to witness the preparation of my gluten-free lunch…

The end of the month was marked by a beautiful day spent  in Verona …..but this deserves a post on its own….


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Posted by on December 4, 2015 in Uncategorized


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